HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 27 Nov 2020 22:38:29 GMT 快猫在线看

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

“但我让他在碰巧看了一眼报纸时,看到上面一篇文章提醒他吸烟会致癌。

Show MoreHide

China's economic performance in the past few years should suffice to put predictions of a hard landing to a full stop. China's economy will continue to enjoy medium-high growth and be upgraded to higher levels
Like air, blue skies treat everyone equally.
Summly的两位员工将迁至雅虎的加利福尼亚州总部,但就目前而言,达洛伊西奥抵挡住了硅谷的诱惑。

The Lord of the Rings trilogy. The amount of time before I need an oil change. My cell phone's battery charge. What do all of these things have in common? The
Best chance: If there are nine or 10 best picture nominees, it could grab a spot. Jordan Peele's screenplay looks certain to be recognized.
The report didn't comment on potential factors influencing the numbers, but many – including members of the opposing political party – are laying the blame squarely at the feet of government cost-cutting.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

长租行业遇瓶颈 “房租不炒”路在何方

在回顾过去一年的影片时,观众们经常想起那些有力的表演,或者会思考一部电影怎样叙事,激发了哪些情绪,做了哪些尝试。
The Internet has flattened the world, and Facebook has banded us together as one big family. Our grandfathers inherited regions, my generation inherited nations, you have inherited the world. You are now only 4.74 people away from any human being and an average of two days away from any inhabited corner of the world. So travel. Africa, Europe, India, China or Brazil, go where you can learn the most, embrace what can teach you the most.
prosperity

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

"这是自然保护的一次伟大创举。"
“气候变化也许是我们这代人的重大挑战,”美国国家航空航天局(NASA)地球科学部主任迈克尔·H·弗莱利赫(Michael H. Freilich)说,他的部门是跟踪全球气温的机构之一。
其中,国产动作片《战狼2》位居榜首,成了中国史上收入最高的影片,门票销售狂揽56.8亿元。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Song “Taste of China” (Phoenix Legend)
  • 楼市下半年或持续降温 房地产长效机制加速推进
  • Her piece, titled “Back to Mother Nature," depicts an elaborate water-cleaning machine. Zhang worked with a team of artists at Google to animate her drawing.
  • 北京中介自行关停138家门店 520家被查
  • 各地兴建高楼之风愈演愈烈 摩天大楼出租率堪忧
  • “阅后即焚”社交网络的兴起
    Nine provincial-level regions' GDP exceeded 3 trillion yuan in 2016, three more than the year before. The number of provincial-level areas with GDP surpassing 1 trillion yuan in 2016 remained 25.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 新型建材受益城镇化:北新5亿布局 伟星深挖渠道, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

北京今年90项京津冀协同任务 多项涉及副中心

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

水漆国内使用率不到10% 成本高、施工繁成拦路虎

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 单词posture 联想记忆:
    adj. 平的,与飞机有关的
  • TERRIBLE TIMEKEEPING
    宝能的“突袭”遭到了万科创始人王石的强烈抵制,后者寻找“白衣骑士”出手相助,迄今为止成功地保住了对这家由管理层主导的企业的控制权。这场收购大战既推动万科在深圳股市的股价大涨,又大幅推升了姚振华的已知财富。
    Online sales contributed 82.6 percent of sales. Online sales have prompted traditional stores, including 13 of Beijing's 77 "time-honored brands" from snack stores to shoes sellers, to move their goods online.
    过去10年,全球最具价值品牌100强的品牌价值增长一倍多,增幅达到133%。品牌价值是根据收入和盈利能力等财务指标,结合消费者品牌认知调查计算的。
    n. 飞机,水平

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 平心而论 城市改造应溯本求源
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 全球楼市涨幅排名出炉:上海领跑 香港垫底

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

据西藏扶贫办公室透露,位于中国西南部的西藏自治区,去年共有15万农村居民脱贫。
Vocal event of the year: "The Only Way I Know," Eric Church, Luke Bryan and Jason Aldean
Effective bosses must be effective decision makers. He or she cannot vacillate over every tiny decision. Being able to make decisions quickly and decisively — and then take responsibility for the outcome (see number 2) — is an important business skill, especially when managing others。
上月越南主席张晋创对中国进行国访,会见中国主席习近平。但中越双方并未就跨境贸易达成一致。
Fereston recalls when writer Jennifer Crittenden stopped him in the hallway after filming and asked him, 'Are you sure about this? Are you sure you're not ruining Julia Louis-Dreyfus' career?' Considering Dreyfus won an Emmy that same year, it's safe to say the dance was a good career move for the actress. And now to reminisce, here is Elaine doing her famous "Elaine Dance."
位居榜单第三的是史蒂夫·卡瑞尔(Steve Carell)。《卑鄙的我2》(Despicable Me 2)在今年大获成功,斩获票房9.19亿美元。该电影系列累计已取得14亿美元的全球票房,该系列第三部《小黄人》(Minions)也即将上映。卡瑞尔今年还出演了小制作独立影片《迷途知返》(The Way Way Back)和《超级魔术师》(The Incredible Burt Wonderstone)。后一部影片的票房虽未能赚回制作成本,但是我们这里只关注票房收入——该部影片为卡瑞尔2013年的电影票房收入又添2,250万美元。
So far this year, companies have announced 376 share-repurchase initiatives for a total of $261 billion, according to data from Birinyi Associates. That's nearly 72% higher than 2012, though slightly lower when compared to the same period in 2013, which was a record year for buybacks.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 总之,勒布朗在过去的9年里能很好地强化他那野兽般的身躯,我们感到很欣慰。
  • 四方争霸 南京家居建材市场谋新未来
  • At the last minute he opted instead for Teach First, the educational charity that has become the UK’s biggest recruiter of new graduates. Rather than parachuting into companies that needed restructuring, Mr Ravenscroft started teaching business and economics at Cardinal Pole School, which serves 11-19 year old boys and girls in Hackney, east London.
    When he wasn't programming or doing schoolwork, D'Aloisio began to fill his spare time reading about natural language processing. He'd studied languages as diverse as Latin and Mandarin, and became fascinated by concepts like grammatical frameworks, morpheme parsing and the 1960s work of the linguist Richard Montague. 'He's my favorite,' D'Aloisio enthuses. 'He theorized that natural language could be described like a syntactical programming language.'
  • “模仿红利”渐消失 地板企业以创新驱动发展
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • This movie tells the story of Wade Wilson, played by Ryan Reynolds, who is a mercenary with accelerated healing powers and a dark sense of humour. He's now on the lookout for the man who almost destroyed his life by subjecting him to rogue experiments. Deadpool belongs to the Marvel Universe and is their most unconventional anti-hero.
    As the first of its kind, these monkey stamps are sought-after items, with a single stamp fetching 12,000 yuan, much more than its original face value of 0.8 yuan. The complete set of stamps is priced at 1.5 million yuan.
  • Quantum Break
    [.rez?'vein]
  • vt. 妥协处理,危
    reg统治,ulate-管制
  • 台湾电影无缘2012奥斯卡最佳外语片
    伦敦商学院今年在英国《金融时报》每年发布的4项排名中的表现,令其在欧洲最优秀的81所商学院中拔得头筹,这4项排名是:MBA、高管MBA(EMBA)、管理硕士(MiM)以及高管教育。(有两所商学院因得分相同并列第80位。)
    去年世锦赛打破男子1500米自由泳世界纪录,孙杨就被认为是中国男子游泳在伦敦实现历史性突破的希望所在。即将开始的伦敦奥运会,孙杨将参加200米、400米和1500米自由泳三项.去年世锦赛孙杨在400米自由泳中不敌朴泰桓屈居亚军,因此他发誓要在伦敦复仇。相比而言,孙杨在1500米的夺金把握更大...
  • Stephen Curry scored 37 points to lead the defending NBA champions to their 12th straight win to open the season, a hard-fought 115-110 victory over the Toronto Raptors on Tuesday night.
    Temperatures in 2015 also shattered the previous record set in 2014 by 0.13C, according to Nasa.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 合肥市国土局和物价局辟谣"楼市限价放开":系误读 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

未来5年家居订制依旧引领行业

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

上半年北京房地产市场环比量价齐升 市民购买需求部分释放

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

湖南智能家居市场 圈里圈外冷热不均

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

上半年土地出让破万亿 热点二三线楼市成交翻倍

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 摩根大通公司下滑至第4名,其总综合得分位居中国农业银行之后。去年名列前10强的两家欧企——荷兰皇家壳牌和汇丰控股,今年仅分别排名11名和14名。
  • 该学院还在国际课程体验方面排名第二。在最新的毕业生当中,逾五分之四的人有过国外实习经历,逾一半学员有过在另一个国家学习超过一个月的经历。
  • 上市前夕雷军致全员公开信:明天,让我们一起见证伟大时刻

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Employment is crucial to ensuring people’s well-being. We will focus our efforts on facilitating employment to see that through their hard work, people can create wealth and realize their full potential.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 另一个会造成失业的常见的习惯就是过度沉溺于社交媒体。有些公司采取了相应的措施来监控或限制员工使用社交媒体。有些公司甚至完全屏蔽掉这些网站。所以注意了花太多的时间在社交媒体或者与工作无关的网站上可能会让你饭碗不保哦!
    It grows naturally into the mold's shape.
    But industry watchers say that view misses an area where China goes toe-to-toe with Western rivals in innovation: extra features that make the Chinese version more interactive and more interesting to use.
  • Ellen DeGeneres:

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 新年是这样美好的时光:炉火熊熊,花儿芬芳,醇酒飘香,殷殷祝福,美好回忆,
  • 港媒:调查显示4月中国房地产市场现大范围复苏
  • 'Short Term 12' is one of those small indie features that stays with you in a big way. It's only 96 minutes long, a modest production set in a foster-care facility for troubled teens. Yet Destin Cretton's direction and Brie Larson's performance elevate the film to, well, one of the year's very best. Ms. Larson is almost a sure thing for not getting an Oscar-this year's competition is unusually fierce-but do catch up with her portrayal of Grace, a 20-something supervisor who is far from untroubled in her own life.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 北上广房价涨幅皆超1% 深圳房价涨幅领跑全国
  • Household substance abuse
  • 高压式管控 顺德涂料产业寄望“二次生根”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

城乡融合发展纲领性文件重磅出炉

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 双11狂欢“战线”延长,给家居电商带来什么改变?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 雷士照明内斗最后一战 吴长江出招争抢渠道
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

这部安静而又激烈的以色列电影最后呈现为一部心理惊悚剧。一个热爱诗歌的教师发现自己的一个年轻学生是文学申通,她采取日益极端的措施,在这个冷漠的世界上保护他的天分。随着故事展开,显然,拉皮德想对这个在权力与拜金的祭坛上牺牲灵性价值和文化遗产的社会进行一番隐秘而激烈的批判。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

对气候变化持怀疑态度的人长期以来认为,全球气温已在1998年左右停止变暖,那年是20世纪最热的一年,原因是异常强大的厄尔尼诺现象。华盛顿的一些政客用这种说法作为不对温室气体排放采取行动的理由。
1. Newspaper reporter
[di't?:min]
以下国家在“2017年最佳国家“整体排名中相当亮眼 。这份排名意在衡量全球最大经济体。
肺的一项意外功能被发现了。研究人员发现肺不仅仅能促进呼吸作用,在造血方面也起关键作用,肺每小时能制造1000多万血小板(微小的血细胞),这相当于任何特定时刻循环中的血小板的大多数。
贸易往来令中国该月贸易顺差达到408.2亿美元,比预期低大约72亿美元,也比11月份修正后442.3亿美元的水平(修正前该数字为446.1亿美元)低了36亿美元左右。以人民币计的这一顺差则为2754亿元人民币。
这些银行将钱返还给股东的能力有所下降。中央财经大学中国金融业研究中心主任郭田勇表示,缓慢的盈利增长和高额的不良贷款以及存款准备金给银行的资本金补充带来了压力。
adj. 概要的,简略的
[.di:m?'gr?fik]
美国公司高管的薪酬不断上升,收入差距越拉越大。在这种情况下,看到一位不光关心自身收入的CEO不禁让人眼前一亮。9月份,联想首席执行官杨元庆宣布,他将连续第二年和大约1万名联想员工分享他的奖金,数额至少为300万美元。他做出这个慷慨决定的原因是这家个人电脑制造商的年度销售额创下了历史新高。据彭博新闻(Bloomberg News)报道,参与“分成”的联想员工获得的奖金大约相当于中国普通城镇就业者一个月的收入。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

上半年红木企业运行压力大 红木原材、制品价格微幅下调

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Leading actress Sun Li played Zhou in the drama. Despite her age, Sun, who was born in 1982, still successfully presented a lovely and innocent teenage Zhou in the eyes of many audience members.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 纽约现在排名第7,比去年上升了15个名次。近年来,纽约的生活成本涨幅巨大,较2011年上升了42个名次。
  • LED照明新一波“价格战”再启 国内LED晶片助亿光成本降15%
  • In a close second was Changsha, capital of Hunan province, with growth of 4.5.
  • 泛高安陶企九月销量上升部分新线近期将陆续投产
  • 据中国电影监察机构日前表示,2016年中国票房总额有望超过2015年的440亿元人民币(折合68亿美元)。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 人造板行业面临新一轮工业化革命
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • EMBA-Global是排在前10名的项目中唯一一个毕业学员平均薪资同比略微下滑的项目(其他9个项目的毕业学员平均薪资都出现强劲增长)。
  • 此外,城镇人口也有所增加,现在已经占到总人口的55.88%,相比2010年普查时增加了6.2%。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

港珠澳大桥日均服务旅客超4万人次

View All Footnotes